The primary ways to resolve disputes include litigation, arbitration, and alternative dispute resolution (e.g., mediation and reconciliation). Disputes with administrative organs can be settled through administrative reconsideration and administrative litigation. Mediation is recommended in the process of litigations and arbitrations.
China's court system consists of the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China, local people's courts at various levels (including superior people's courts, intermediate people's courts, and basic people's courts), and specialized people's courts (military courts, maritime courts, intellectual property courts, financial courts, etc.).
China has a well-established arbitration mechanism whereby arbitration is carried out by arbitration committees at the provincial-capital level. The China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC) is one of the world's major standing commercial arbitration bodies, well-known both nationally and internationally for its independence, impartiality, and efficiency.
According to Articles 2 and 41 of The Administrative Reconsideration Law of the People's Republic of China, foreign nationals, stateless persons, and foreign organizations that believe a specific administrative act infringes upon their legitimate rights and interests may file for administrative reconsideration against the administrative organ concerned in accordance with the law.